An in-depth analysis of barriers and enablers for successful transferability of Mobility as a Service. Please share your expert views with us!

Within the framework of the NEWBITS project, a benchmark analysis of ITS innovation diffusion (*) processes was performed to ground an evidence-based categorisation of success determinants and barriers affecting ITS deployment as well as to formulate key recommendations for successful technology transferability. 

The analysis was informed by an extensive review of project-based case studies and local deployment initiatives undertaken across Europe and in the United States, specifically addressing the following innovation areas: 1) Sharing Mobility, 2) Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), and 3) Connected and Autonomous Vehicles.

According to Kamargianni et al. 2015 (*), a natural progress of multi-modal travel planning applications is represented by MaaS, which can be defined as:

“The term “Mobility as a Service” stands for buying mobility services based on consumers’ needs instead of buying the means of transport. Via “Mobility as a Service” systems consumers can buy mobility services that are provided by the same or different operators by using just one platform and a single payment. The platform provides an intermodal journey planner (providing combinations of different transport modes: car‐sharing, car rental, underground, rail, bus, bike-­sharing, taxi), a booking system, a single payment method (single payment for all transport modes), and real-time information. MaaS users can use the Service either as Pay-‐As‐You‐Go or they can purchase mobility packages based on their or their family’s needs”.

It is evident that the MaaS ecosystem is made up of many actors, i.e. customers, mobility management players, telecommunication companies, payment processors, public and private transport providers, MaaS provider, data providers and local authorities with responsibilities in city planning and transport planning, who strive together for a holistic, integrated mobility ecosystem.

Being the core outputs of the benchmark analysis, the diagram below illustrate the forces driving and restraining the successful deployment and transferability potential of MaaS applications.


Output of force field analysis for MaaS. Source: TTS elaboration.


Drawing on the above insights, NEWBITS has also formulated preliminary high-level recommendations to accelerate the diffusion of MaaS innovations across European and US markets.

Barrier Suggested action to overcome barrier
Legislation and regulation Ensure that transparent market conditions, transport service purchase, subsidisation procedures develop to benefit MaaS operator businesses
Technical barriers Support development of open interfaces, global interoperability and ensure necessary infrastructure for MaaS operation is in place
Financial barrier Design instruments to finance new MaaS-related business and support international investments into MaaS solutions
User acceptance Collect feedback and needs from users, develop awareness campaigns and provide users incentives
Human-related Ensure that proactive discussions and collaboration among stakeholders are always encouraged in order for a MaaS ecosystem to evolve
Lack of human expertise Both public and private entities need to access capacity building programmes for technical and administrative staff participating in MaaS


NEWBITS is currently gathering expert insights from research, public administration and ITS industry representatives to valide the findings of the benchmark analysis. The outcomes of such engagement activity will be the subject of the forthcoming NEWBITS Deliverable 7.4 External Liaison Plan, which will be submitted to the European Commission in March 2019. Please help us maximise the output of this exciting and collaborative piece of work!

Further information can be found here:


(*) Kamargianni, M., Matyas, M., Li, W. & Schäfer, A. (2015) Feasibility study for “Mobility as a Service” concept in London.

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Gennaro Ciccarellimargorini4@gmail.comIsidoros PassasDaniela Vasari Recent comment authors
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Daniela Vasari
Daniela Vasari

The MaaS application is the solution for a complete mobility offer to the travellers thanks the integration of services and information belonging to the involved stakeholders (Transport service providers and public transport operators, MaaS operators, IT system providers, Customers and Public Authorities (Cities, local, regional and national authorities). There are different applications that run at European level (please visit the MaaS Alliance web site ) and promote MaaS. Thus far, many barriers need to be overcome for a performed MaaS solution available: for example the use of standard is not an easy issue, or the mobility data sharing acceptance… Read more »

Isidoros Passas

Thank you Daniela for the interesting comment.
MaaS might be considered as one of the examples of technology applications/solutions that drive the politicians to take decisions and design policies in response to technology advancements.
Mobility issues up to now, have been addressed through long term planning and regulations proposed by the politicians.
Now, with the adoption of MaaS by the citizens all over the world, politicians are urged to take initiatives and proposed policies to support MaaS as a solution to mobility

Resulting from my experience on H2020 IMOVE project (, there is one more barrier that slows down the development of full MaaS potential: the lack of a clear, shared and comprehensive vision of MaaS among different ecosystem actors. At one hand, there is the common belief that MaaS is just an app: this often leads to put great expectations on technology (end users) and to underrate organizational issues (potential MaaS operators, i.e. “let me find the right vendor with the right app, and my MaaS will work for sure!”). On the other hand, transport operators (who provide the transport offer,… Read more »