An in-depth analysis of barriers and enablers for successful transferability of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles. Please share your expert views with us!

Within the framework of the NEWBITS project, a benchmark analysis of ITS innovation diffusion (*) processes was performed to ground an evidence-based categorisation of success determinants and barriers affecting ITS deployment as well as to formulate key recommendations for successful technology transferability. 

The analysis was informed by an extensive review of project-based case studies and local deployment initiatives undertaken across Europe and in the United States, specifically addressing the following innovation areas: 1) Sharing Mobility, 2) Mobility-as-a-Service, and 3) Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV’s).

CAV’s incorporate a range of different technologies which facilitate the safe, efficient movement of people and goods; increased connectivity allows vehicles to communicate with their surrounding environment, providing valuable information about road, traffic and weather conditions. Car manufacturers also continue to explore ever-increasing levels of automation for personal vehicles.

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the automotive standardisation body, has come up with a taxonomy and classification system for autonomous vehicles, with levels 0 – 5, with 0 and 5 being ‘no automation’ and ‘full automation’ respectively; the four key stages of technology on the autonomy roadmap are often referred to as feet off (SAE level 1), hands off (SAE level 2), eyes off (SAE level 3), brain off (SAE levels 4 and 5).

Levels of Automation.
Source: Automated and Autonomous Driving, OECD/ITF, 2015 (adapted from SAE Standard J3016, SAE International 2014)


Being the core outputs of the benchmark analysis, the diagram below illustrates the forces driving and restraining the successful deployment and transferability potential of CAV applications.

Output of force field analysis for CAV’s. Source: TTS elaboration.


Drawing on the above insights, preliminary high-level recommendations to boost innovation diffusion of CAV’s were formulated.

Barrier Suggested action to overcome barrier
User acceptance To establish a safety track records (as part of on-going pilots) as users are more interested in advanced safety applications
Willingness to pay Despite increasing users’ interest in CAV’s, there is a significantly decreased willingness to pay from both EU and US consumers, therefore costs must be improved and consensus building on CAV’s developed
Data protection and cyber-security Establishment of a precise set of rules for personal data exchange and sharing with third parties. Regulators must ensure that all testing activities for CAV’s must comply with General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR); regulators must ensure that any data collected or scenarios where individuals can be identified are stringently regulated.
Technology barrier Standardisation bodies must develop technical standards for CAV’s, whilst Central Government bodies should develop national frameworks providing technological and operational conditions to develop integrated and interoperable CAV systems.
Lack of interest/priority action from policy makers Dedicated training and awareness raising programmes on CAV benefits to inform policy makers, alongside development of guidelines for strategic city mobility planning, must be prioritised.
Regulatory issues Regulators should mandate deployment of technologies, define open technology standards to accelerate diffusion of CAV’s.
Lack of human resources Capacity building in both the public and private domain must strongly be encouraged.
Public funding Large scale public demonstrations of CAV applications to cover all range of operational scenarios should be funded by local governments and/or established through Public-Private Partnership frameworks.


Further information can be found here:

NEWBITS is currently gathering expert insights from research, public administration and ITS industry representatives to valide the findings of the benchmark analysis. The outcomes of such engagement activity will be the subject of the forthcoming NEWBITS Deliverable 7.4 External Liaison Plan, which will be submitted to the European Commission in March 2019. Please help us maximise the output of this exciting and collaborative piece of work!

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